Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

This paper is a case study of a 5-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

This paper explains that acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a leukemia in which the lymphoblast cells proliferate abnormally, resulting in the rapid progression of the disease with the abnormal cells easily infiltrating any organ in the body. The author points out that Jimmy has a favorable prognosis because his WBC count of 3,600/uL is within the range that suggests a favorable prognosis. The paper relates that two chronic complications of ALL are infection and bleeding.

Table of Contents
Introduction
Discussion of Jimmy?s Case
Risk Factors for Cancer and Characteristics for a Favorable Prognosis
Pathophysiology ( White Blood Cell Lymphoblast)
Clinical Manifestations and Pathology
Chronic Complications and Pathophysiology
Laboratory Tests: CBC and Uric Acid
Bone Marrow Aspiration Test
Intravenous Fluids and Allopurinol to Prevent Renal Failure
Medications: Allopurinol, Vincristine, Dexamethasone and Asparaginase
Conclusion
“In ALL, a white blood cell lymphoblast becomes genetically altered and begins to clone itself and proliferate. This cloning begins in the bone marrow, where white blood cell production occurs. In healthy individuals, white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and transferred to the blood on a continuous basis. In individuals with ALL, the same process occurs, except that white blood cell production proceeds at an excessive and uncontrollable rate. The normal blood cell production in the bone marrow provides the blood with the white blood cells. This means that when proliferation occurs, the cells produced naturally are transferred to the blood. These cells are then transported throughout the body. The proliferating cells can also be transported to the thymus, liver, lymph nodes, testes, and the CNS, and can continue to proliferate from those locations. ALL also results in reduced levels of the other components of blood including platelets and red blood cells because the proliferating white blood cells crowd them out.”

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