Includes description, physiological & psychological effects (positive & negative), addiction & abuse and socioeconomic aspects.

In the case United States v. Armstrong, four defendants in Los Angeles charged with trafficking crack cocaine filed a motion for discovery or dismissal, alleging that they were victims of selective prosecution by race. This motion was made after the federal public defender’s office found that all 24 crack cocaine cases closed in Los Angeles in 1991 involved blacks. The district court and the circuit court upheld the motion, but the federal prosecutor refused to comply. The government then appealed to the Supreme Court, which decided in favor of the government.

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